Department of the South Census 1864

By 1864 parts of coastal Florida, Georgia and South Carolina were under Union control. During that time a census was taken in the Jacksonville, Fernandina and St. Augustine areas. Members from several area genealogical societies found and transcribed the census records which was then published by the Florida State Genealogical Society.

From the forward to “Census” Department of the South November, 1864

One of the forgotten legacies of this era was a special census of eastern Florida conducted on the orders of Federal military authorities. Its motivation is to this day unclear, but it seems likely to have been part of the work done to help register voters under Lincoln’s “10%” reconstruction plan. African-Americans living in the region were also enumerated despite the fact that they did not yet have the legal right to vote. The number, age and gender of all “contrabands” would be of great interest to Union military men who were always on the lookout for new recruits for the growing number of United States Colored Troops regiments being formed. Thus, this special census data opens a unique window on Florida’s Civil War population that has heretofore been closed.

You will find a copy of this census at St. Johns County’s Southeast Branch Library. A search for “Census” Department of the South, November 1864 in WorldCat.org will tell you which other libraries have a copy. A print copy can also be purchased at Amazon. Cost is $35.00.

If you have ancestors living in the areas covered by this census, we will be happy to do lookups for you. Use the comment box below this post to make your request.

William Wing Loring

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Loring Monument from the author’s collection

 

This imposing monument presides over the plaza to the west of Government House and overlooks the busiest intersection in downtown St. Augustine.  In actuality, it’s more than just a monument.  It’s also the grave of William Wing Loring, a man who served in three armies including as Pasha in the army of Egypt.

LoringPasha
William Wing Loring via Florida Photographic Collection

Born December 4, 1818 in Wilmington, North Carolina, William moved to St. Augustine with his parents in 1823 – just two years after Florida had become a United States territory.  At the age of 14 he enlisted in the Florida Militia and fought in the early skirmishes of the Second Seminole War.  He was promoted to lieutenant before he left the militia to finish his schooling in Virginia. After school, he passed the bar exam and spent some time as an attorney and even served in the state legislature from 1843 to 1845.  He joined the Army and served in the Mexican War where he lost his arm during battle in Mexico City.  In 1849 he took command of the Oregon Territory as part of the Mounted Rifles and served in the west until 1859.  When the Civil War erupted, he resigned to join the Southern cause serving at Vicksburg, in Tennessee, North Georgia and in the campaign against Nashville.  In 1865 he surrendered to General Sherman in North Carolina shortly after Appomatox. A group of Confederate and Union veterans later served in the Egyptian army after being recommended to the Khedive of Egypt by none other than William Tecumseh Sherman. Loring served for nine years, attaining the rank of Fereek Pasha (Major General).  On his return to the states, he wrote a book about his experiences titled A Confederate Soldier in Egypt (1884).  He co-authored another book, The March of the Mounted Riflemen, which was published after his death. Upon his return from Egypt, Loring spent his time working on his book and traveling between his Florida home, New York and the western states.  From a profile in the New York Times dated October 17, 1886:

One evening I heard a fine looking old gentleman extolling the United States Government, and saying many kindly things of Lincoln and of Grant. I also noticed that he carried upon his right side an empty sleeve, which he at last alluded to indirectly by saying: “I lost one arm in the service of my country at the storming of the citadel of the city of Mexico, but I have another left which is always ready and loyal to do her bidding.” I then asked who the gentleman was, and I was informed that it was “old Billy himself”….There is no man more warmly embosomed in the hearts of Floridians than Gen. Loring.

General Loring died in New York on December 30, 1886 from pneumonia.  Robert Hawke tells the rest of the story in Florida’s Army:

Loring’s reinterment and public funeral in St. Augustine during March of 1887 was one of the grandest events in the city’s history for that decade. It was used as an occasion for a combined encampment, and week-long meeting, of the Union and Confederate veterans organizations of northeast Florida. Both groups, in conjunction with other local civic organizations, sponsored the erection of a memorial obelisk and monument, in Government House Square, inscribed with the details of Loring’s life and military service, and emblazoned with the flags of the United States, the Confederated States, and the Ottoman province of Egypt. It is a fine memorial to the local militiaman who became a pasha of Egypt.

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South side of the Loring monument from the author’s collection

References:

  • Hawk, Robert. Florida's Army: Militia, State Troops, National Guard, 1565-1985. Englewood, Fla: Pineapple Press, 1986.
  • William W. Loring.  Wikipedia [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_wing_loring]
  • William Wing Loring.  Civil War Home [http://www.civilwarhome.com/loringbio.htm]
  • Florida Photographic Collection.  State Archives of Florida. [http://www.floridamemory.com/PhotographicCollection]

First Plots?

SANYO DIGITAL CAMERAYou are looking at the southwest corner of the St. Augustine National Cemetery.  The marble slab on the ground in the corner is plot 1 and contains the remains of Lieut. Stephen Tuttle.  The nearer slab is plot 4 and contains the remains of John Winfield Scott McNeil.  If you are thinking these were among the first burials in this cemetery, you would be wrong.

This cemetery served the U.S. Army Post of St. Augustine long before it became a National Cemetery in 1881.  The first interment was 1828 with most of the early graves resulting from casualties of the Seminole Wars.  Most notable among these was the Dade Monument [ see article at Graveyard Rabbit of Moultrie Creek].

TuttleStephen Tuttle was a 1st Lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers and was serving in St. Augustine on a huge project to rebuild and extend the seawall protecting the town.  He died in 1835.  J.W.S. McNeil served with the 2nd Regiment of Dragoons and died in 1837 of wounds received in action at Mosquito Inlet.  Both were originally buried at the Huguenot Cemetery just outside the city gates and reinterred at the National Cemetery many years later.

McNeilSome time back, I received a call from Greg Moore, Command Historian for the Florida National Guard, wondering if I had run into these two officers as part of my Huguenot Cemetery research because he thought they had been buried there first.  Sure enough, looking at a cemetery inventory from 1892 published in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register (see Huguenot inventory ), we found both men with descriptions of the graves and the inscriptions on their tombstones.  These tombstones match the descriptions from the Huguenot inventory.

A search in Google Books turned up an Annual Report from the Secretary of War published in 1916 stating:

“During the year the following remains of soldiers were removed from fields and abandoned cemeteries and reinterred in national cemeteries:   . . .  2 known officers from old Huguenot Cemetery, St. Augustine, FL to the St. Augustine (Fla.) National Cemetery; . . .”

Huguenot Cemetery had been closed in 1884 and there are many reports of various efforts to clean up and restore the cemetery.  The first serious project didn’t begin until 1946 so from the Army’s perspective this cemetery may well have been a concern for the veterans interred there.

So, why were these Soldiers initially buried in the public cemetery instead of the post cemetery?  What were the circumstances of their move?  And, how did they become the first plots at the National Cemetery?  This mystery will take a lot more research to unravel.

The plots thicken.

References:

  • Leeds, B. Frank.  Inscriptions in the Old Protestant Graveyard at St. Augustine, Fla., The New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vols. 37-52. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1883-98.
  • United States War Department.  Annual Reports of the Secretary of War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1916.
  • Florida. St. Augustine National Cemetery Index and Biographical Guide: (Preliminary Abridged Edition). Special archives publication, no. 44. St. Augustine, Fla: State Arsenal, St. Francis Barracks, 1980.

William Jenkins Worth Monument

The Seminole Wars in Florida dragged on for decades and became hugely unpopular and a political hot potato.  In 1841, then Colonel Worth took command of the Florida army and in May of 1842 President Tyler decided it was time for this war to come to an end.  Colonel Worth made that happen – officially.  In reality, sporadic skirmishes with the Seminoles continued until the beginning of the Civil War.

Promoted to brevet brigadier general for his Florida accomplishments, Worth went on to become a hero in the Mexican-American War for his actions at Matamoros, Monterrey and Veracruz.  He died in San Antonio of cholera in 1849 while commanding the Department of Texas.  His popularity continued to grow after his death.

In 1857, Worth’s remains were re-interred with much pomp and ceremony in New York City at what is now known as Worth Square.  Below is a copy of the commemorative booklet printed for the occasion.  After his death, his widow, Margaret Stafford Worth, returned to St. Augustine where she lived until her death in 1869.  She is buried in the St. Augustine National Cemetery along with her daughter, Mary Worth Sprague who died in 1876.  Colonel Sprague, Mary’s husband, served as Worth’s adjutant during the Florida campaign and was the military governor of Florida during Reconstruction.

A copy of this booklet has been passed down to my family – through our Worth cousins in Savannah – and was donated to the Worth Museum in Texas by my father.

Wm J Worth Monument Commemorative Booklet 1857

References:

  • The Handbook of Texas Online. “Worth, William Jenkins“, accessed 2 November 2008.
  • The Handbook of Texas Online. “Sprague, John Titcomb“, accessed 2 November 2008.
  • Edward S. Wallace, General William Jenkins Worth, Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1933.

War Department Report 1904

Between the Florida Wars with the Seminoles and the Civil War, the U.S. Army spent a lot of time in St. Augustine during the 19th century, but by 1904, they didn’t have much use for our city. Here’s the Annual Report of the War Department from June 1904:

The military reservations in the vicinity of St. Augustine, Fla., are as follows:
” A.” Powder or magazine lot, containing an area of 11 acres.
” B.” The St. Augustine National Cemetery, formerly the post cemetery, containing an area of about fifty-eight hundredths of an acre.
” C.” The St. Francis Barracks and hospital lot, containing about 5 acres.
” D.” Two islands, near St. Augustine, in the main channel of the Mantanzas River, containing about 2 acres.
” E.” Fort Marion, an old Spanish work said to have been commenced in 1565 and completed in 1756, under the name of Castle of St. Mark. The fort and adjacent land contain about 22 acres.
” F.” Anastasia Island Military Reservation, containing about 700 acres.

The national cemetery contains the remains of the officers and enlisted men killed in the Dade massacre and Florida wars from 1835 to 1842.

Old Fort Marion serves no useful purpose, but is attractive as a relic. If a portion of this reservation could be set aside as a national cemetery and the remains moved from the present cemetery it would seem advisable, for historic and sentimental reasons, to retain the Fort Marion Reservation, marking accurately and properly its boundaries as determined by proper surveys, or selling to the parties who are located thereon under revocable licenses such portions of the reservation as they hold, carefully bounding and marking the remaining portion and prohibiting any further encroachment or trespass thereon. Then the lands embraced in what is now St. Francis Barracks, the adjoining hospital lot, national cemetery, and the powder or magazine lot might be disposed of.

The buildings at St. Francis Barracks are going to ruin, the post will probably never be occupied again, and it seems useless to expend any money for repairs. An ordnance-sergeant alone is in charge of these reservations, and has a care taker for the Fort Marion Reservation and one for the national cemetery. The sergeant manages all affairs and attends to all his duties in a very satisfactory and businesslike way. His relations with the city authorities and all concerned seem very cordial.

St. Augustine Historic District

That ordnance-sergeant was quite a character, St. Francis Barracks is now the headquarters for the Florida National Guard, the St. Augustine National Cemetery honors those who served throughout the 19th and 20th century and this is what that old “relic” looks like today as a national monument.

Reposted with permission from Moultrie Journal.